English - Chinese


1. Endometriosis

Endometriosis occurs when a specialized type of tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus (the endometrium) becomes implanted outside your uterus, most commonly on your fallopian tubes, ovaries or tissue lining your pelvis. It is one of the most common causes of pelvic pain and infertility in women.

Diagnosis is best prroven by laparoscopy, a minor surgical procedure done under anesthesia. A laparoscopy usually shows the location, size, and extent of the growths. This helps the doctor and patient make better treatment choices. Treatment options include medication and surgery.

2. Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are tumours or growths, made up of muscle cells and other tissues that grow within the wall of the uterus (or womb). Although fibroids are sometimes called tumours, they are almost always benign (not cancerous). Fibroids can grow as a single growth or in clusters.

Diagnosis of fibroids include pelvic examination & ultrasound scanning. Some drugs can temporarily decrease the size of the fibroids and may be used before surgery to shrink the fibroids, making them easier to remove. If symptoms persist or if the gynaecologist thinks the fibroids could be the cause of your infertility, surgery may be advised.

3. Ovarian Cysts

An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with liquid or semi-liquid material arising in an ovary. Ovarian cysts are usually diagnosed by chance as most simple ovarian cysts do not produce symptoms unless they have associated complications. Often they are discovered either during a regular pelvic examination or as an unexpected finding during an ultrasound examination of the pelvis.

Functional (normal) ovarian cysts are the most common type of ovarian cyst. They usually disappear by themselves and seldom require treatment. Cysts that become abnormally large or last longer than a few months should be removed or examined to determine if they are in fact something more harmful.

4. Menopause

Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when the function of the ovaries ceases. It does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process of transition. A woman is in menopause if she has had no menstrual periods (menses) for 12 months and has no other medical reason for her menses to stop. That means she has to be evaluated by her doctor to exclude other medical causes of missed menses.

The symptoms of the menopause transition can be divided into early and late onset symptoms. Early symptoms include irregular vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, and night sweats. Late symptoms include vaginal dryness and irritation and osteoporosis.

Treatments for menopause are directed toward alleviating the symptoms present in the particular woman affected.

Copyright © 2011 Singapore Women's Clinic. All rights reserved.